Expansion of GCC-Israel relations: An explanation from the perspective of realism

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guilan

2 MA in Regional Studies, Faculty of International Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs


The GCC's relations with Israel have historically been influenced by the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, and the failure to reach an agreement between Palestine and Israel played an important role in the non-normalization of relations between these actors. However, over time, the importance of this issue has diminished and political, economic and security relations between the members of the GCC and Israel have been increasingly developed. The UAE and Bahrain have established formal diplomatic relations with Israel which is a symbol of a change in Middle East policy and could pave the way for new alliances and coalitions in the region. This paper is going to answer the following question. Why have Israel and GCC increased and deepened their economic, political and security relations in a way that formal recognition of Israel and even the perspective of regional alliance between these actors are more probable than ever. The findings illustrate that the type of relations between different members of GCC and Israel vary according to the different interests and concerns of GCC members. However, most of GCC members have expanded relations with Israel to gain the US strategic support, improve their regional power and counter treats. Israel has also expanded relations with GCC to form a front against Iran, improve its regional power and finally reduce its international isolations. The methodology of the paper is explanatory approach and it concentrates mostly on the presidency of Donald Trump.


خبرگزاری ایرنا (22 مرداد 1392)، قطر: موضع اخیر دبیر کل شورای همکاری خلیج فارس، دیدگاه کشورهای عضو نیست.
رسولی ثانی آبادی، الهام (1393)، «ماهیت اتحادها در خاورمیانه؛ قدرت یا هویت»، فصلنامه مطالعات راهبردی، سال هفدهم. شماره 3. صص 196-171.
سیمبر، رضا و علی اسمعیلی (1392)، «علل شکل‌گیری و تداوم اتحاد ایران و سوریه  (2000-1979)»، فصلنامه سیاست جهانی، سال دوم. شماره 2.  صص 29-7.
قوام، سیدعبدالعلی (1386)، روابط بین‌الملل: نظریه‌ها و رویکردها، تهران: انتشارات سمت.
کاربو، ژولیه و جیمز لی رای (1393)، سیاست جهانی: نظریه بازیگران و تعاملات امنیتی، ترجمه قدرت احمدیان و فرهاد دانش‌نیا. تهران: مرکز مطالعات جهانی شدن.
کافمن، جویس پی (1398)، گذاری تحلیلی بر سیاست خارجی آمریکا، ترجمه امیر نیاکوئی، علی اصغر ستوده و زهره حیدری بنی. انتشارات دانشگاه گیلان
میرگلوی بیات، میرجواد (27 بهمن 1397)، رابطه عمان با اسراییل؛ رقابت با عربستان یا دوری از ایران. سایت دیپلماسی ایرانی.   http://irdiplomacy.ir/fa/news/1981764
نصری، قدیر (1389)، «سه فرمول کلیدی برای درک منطق منازعه در خاورمیانه: دیدگاه باری بوزان»، پژوهشکده مطالعات استراتژیک خاورمیانه.
نیاکوئی، سید امیر(1399)، زمستان عربی و معمای دموکراسی در خاورمیانه، تهران: نشر مخاطب.
نیاکوئی، سید امیر و ویدا حاجی (1396)، «تاثیر خیزشهای عربی خاورمیانه بر الگوی روابط ایران و ترکیه (2017-2011)»، فصلنامه پژوهش­های روابط بین­الملل، دوره نخست. شماره 25. صص 119-91.
هنسن، برت و دیگران (1390)، راهبردهای امنیتی و نظم جهانی آمریکایی (قدرت از دست رفته)، ترجمه امیر نیاکویی و احمد جانسیز. رشت:  انتشارات دانشگاه گیلان.
Abrams, Elliott (2017), Realism and Democracy, American foreign policy after the Arab Spring. A Council on Foreign Relations Book. Cambridge University Press.
Cafiero, Giorgo and Claire Fuchs (September 8, 2020), Understanding Isreal Relations With Qatar.https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/understanding-israels-relationship-with-qatar.
Cook, Steven A (2017), False Down: Protest, Democracy and Violence in the New Middle East, Oxford University Press.
Dunne, Charles. W (2019), The United States and the Gulf in the age of Trump: perceptions, possibilities, and challenges, In The Arab Gulf States and the West, Edited by Dania Koleilat Khatib and Marwa Maziad. Routledge.
Koleilat Khatib, Daniel (2019), Arab Gulf States’ lobbying in the US In The Wake of the Arab Uprisings. In The Arab Gulf States and the West, Edited by Dania Koleilat Khatib and Marwa Maziad. Routledge.

Mekelberg, Yossi (Feb 11, 2020), Israel and GCC: United on Iran. Gulf Monitor. https://castlereagh.net/israel-and-gcc-united-on-iran/

Parker, Tylor B (2020), Why Kuwait Rejects Normalization With Israel. https://www.fairobserver.com/region /middle_east_north_africa/tyler-parker-kuwait-news-israel-relations-uae-gulf-arab-news-international-media-news-79163/

Pradhan, Prasanta Kumar (2017), Arab Spring and Sectarian Faultlines in West Asia: Bahrain, Yemen and Syria. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi.

Rahman, Omar (January 28, 2019), What’s behind the relationship between Israel and Arab Gulf states?   https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2019/01/28/whats-behind-the-relationship-between-israel-and-arab-gulf-states.

Ulrichsen, Christian Coates and Giorgio Cafiero (October 27, 2020), Oman plays it safe on Israel. https://www.mei.edu/publications/oman-plays-it-safe-israel

Youness,  Mohamed Abdallah (2019), The continuity and change of the Gulf States’ image in the Israeli epistemic community, In The Arab Gulf States and the West, Edited by Dania Koleilat Khatib and Marwa Maziad. Routledge.