Traditionally, peace and security have been among the most important topics in International Relations and competing approaches have been put forward for achieving them. Meanwhile, it must be noted that peace and security have been challenged in different regions by various factors so that different mechanisms have been pursued for maintaining peace and security. The present paper is going to explore the security challenges in Iraq after Saddam and Syria after Arab spring in light of security theories. The findings of the paper demonstrate that in both countries, a combination of internal and external challenges threat national security. It seems that the weakness of social and political coherence combined with increasing interventions of regional and global powers have complicated security situation in these countries.