حدود دفاع مشروع دولت قربانی علیه کنش گران غیردولتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه بوعلی همدان

2 دانش آموخته حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه مفید قم

چکیده

با افزایش تعداد کنش­گران غیردولتی و ازدیاد نقش آن­ها در جامعه بین­المللی، فراوانی جنگ میان دولت­ها به تدریج جای خود را به جنگ میان دولت­ها و کنش­گران غیر­دولتی داد و دولت­ها در معرض حملات این بازیگران جدید حقوق بین­الملل قرار گرفتند. در نتیجه، ضرورت دفاع مشروع علیه آن­ها به روشنی مشخص گردید اما از آن­جا که این کنش­گران در خاک دول دیگر اقدام به ایجاد پایگاه و فعالیت علیه دیگر دولت­ها می­نمایند لازم است حدود دفاع مشروع دولت قربانی علیه آن­ها و در محدوده سرزمینی دولت میزبان بررسی گردد و به این سؤالات پاسخ داده شود که چگونه اعمال این حق ذاتی در خاک دولت میزبان با اصل حاکمیت و تمامیت سرزمینی دولت مذکور قابل جمع خواهد بود؟ و مسئولیت یا عدم مسئولیت دول میزبان چه تأثیری در حدود اعمال دفاع مشروع توسط دولت قربانی دارد؟ در این مقاله پس از بررسی رویه دولت­ها و نظرات علمای حقوق به این نتیجه رسیدیم که چنان­چه حمله مسلحانه کنش­گران غیردولتی، قابل انتساب به دولت میزبان باشد، در اقدام به دفاع «علیه» دولت میزبان، تردید نمی­توان کرد و اگر این حمله منتسب به دولت میزبان نباشد(صرف نظر از مسئولیت غیر مستقیم دولت یا عدم مسئولیت آن) تنها می­توان به دفاع مشروع «علیه کنش­گران اما در سرزمین دولت میزبان»، قائل شد. دیگر ابعاد این موضوع نیز در این مقاله تجزیه و تحلیل خواهد شد.

 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Scope of Self-Defense against Non-State Actors and Responsibility of Host State

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sattar Azizi 1
  • Khatereh Nazari 2
چکیده [English]

With the increase of the number of non-state actors in international community, the frequency of wars between states gradually was replaced by wars between states and non-state actors and states were challenged by these new actors. However, since these actors in the territory of other states create a base and act against them, it is necessary to legally examine the scope of victim’s state self-defense within the territory of the host states. The authors are going to answer these questions: how can justify the right of self-defense of victim states according to the principle of territorial sovereignty of host states? And responsibility or non-responsibility of host state has what impact in scope of self-defense? In this article in addition to answering these questions, we will also study practice of states and the opinions of legal scholars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Self-Defense
  • Non-State Actors
  • International Responsibility
  • Sovereignty of States

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ICJ, Case Concerning Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupited Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion of 9 July 2004.

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