چالش بانک سرمایه گذاری زیرساخت آسیا و هژمونی مالی اقتصادی آمریکا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی

چکیده

پس از پایان جنگ جهانی دوم ایالات متحده بر اساس نسبت چشم­گیری که از منابع مادی قدرت جهان داشته است، به­عنوان یک قدرت بزرگ به بازسازی نظم بین المللی پرداخته است. این نظم بین المللی تا حدودی بر فرماندهی ایالات متحده بر متحدین و مشارکت با دولت­های توسعه یافته صنعتی و از طرفی توازن قوا و بازدارندگی در برابر رقبا شکل یافته است. ایالات متحده هم چنین نقش محوری در ایجاد نهادهای مالی و تجاری صندوق بین المللی پول، بانک جهانی و سازمان تجارت جهانی ایفا کرده است. این نهادها نقش برجسته ای در متن سیاست­ها و منافع ایالات متحده در عرصه بین المللی داشته اند. هم اکنون در پی رشد قدرت­های نوظهور و بیش از همه چین، سهم نسبی ایالات متحده از ثروت و قدرت جهانی کاهش یافته است و قدرت های نوظهور و در راس آن چین خواستار بازتوزیع مزیت ها در نهادهای مالی و اقتصادی برجسته بین المللی هستند، این تقاضا و گرایش ایالات متحده به حفظ نقش مسلطش در نهادهای مالی و اقتصادی جهانی، چین را به این باور رسانیده است که این نهادها از لحاظ کارکردی قابلیت­های اساسی برای مواجهه با چالش­های جدید سرمایه گذاری به­ویژه در آسیا ندارند. بر این اساس پکن نقش محوری در تأسیس بانک سرمایه گذاری زیرساخت آسیا ایفا کرده است. در این مقاله از چشم انداز نظری نظم نهادینه بین المللی و بر اساس روش تبیینی به مساله چالش بانک سرمایه گذاری زیرساخت آسیا برای هژمونی مالی اقتصادی آمریکا در عرصه بین المللی پرداخته ایم.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and America's Economic and Finance Hegemony

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Taghizadeh Ansari
چکیده [English]

Chinese President Xi Jinping launched a new international development bank seen as a rival to the U.S.-led World Bank at a lavish ceremony on Saturday, as Beijing seeks to change the unwritten rules of global development finance. Despite opposition from Washington, U.S. allies including Australia, Britain, German, Italy, the Philippines and South Korea have agreed to join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) in recognition of China's growing economic clout.  This article focus on the building of new international institutions, and specifically ask: how can China use new international institutions to advance its interests? This question is of greatest salience at the level of the international system, and the prospect of China building a network of “counter-hegemonic” institutions that successfully challenge oppose and undermine the U.S.-led global and regional institutions and the order they help sustain. The United States established its international position through the building of a wide array of international institutions global and regional, economic, political, and security. These institutions have been integral to the rise of the postwar liberal international order. As China’s rise is occurring within this established system of institutions, this article begin our inquiry by asking how China is engaging, confronting, and making choices about these institutions and this order
.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • China
  • the US Hegemony
  • International Order
  • Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

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