نقش طبقه متوسط جدید در انقلاب 2011 مصر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم سیاسی دانشگاه اصفهان

2 عضو هیأت علمی گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه اصفهان

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چکیده

اصلاحات سیاسی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی گسترده جمال عبدالناصر در مصر که در زمان انورسادات و مبارک نیز پیگیری شد، خصوصاً در زمینه بهداشت و درمان و توسعه آموزش همگانی، باعث افزایش جمعیت جوان و رشد قشر تحصیلکرده دانشگاهی و طبقه متوسط جدید در این کشور شد. از این رو پژوهش حاضر در پی پاسخ گویی به این سوال است که طبقه متوسط جدید چه نقشی در انقلاب 2011 مصر داشته است؟ فرض این پژوهش بر آن است که طبقه متوسط جدید نقش هادی، مدیر و ایدئولوگ را در انقلاب 2011 مصر داشته است.  این طبقه که مهمترین خواست آن مشارکت سیاسی است، در مقابل ساختار سیاسی بسته مصر که توان پاسخگویی به این خواست را نداشت، تبدیل به یک نیروی انقلابی شده و در نهایت با همکاری توده­های مردم باعث سقوط حکومت مبارک شدند. علاوه براین، وضعیت اقتصادی نه چندان مطلوب مصر در زمان انقلاب، نرخ بالای بیکاری در بین طبقه متوسط جدید به­گونه­ای که حدود یک میلیون نفر یعنی نیمی از جمعیت بیکار مصر متعلق به گروه سنی 20-24 سال بود، فساد روز افزون طبقه حاکمه، ایجاد وضعیت«برآمدگی جمعیت»، شمار فراوان جمعیت زیر خط فقر، افزایش جهانی قیمت مواد غذایی و وابستگی مصر به واردات مواد غذایی و وضعیت نامناسب توسعه انسانی در این کشور، مجموعاً باعث ایجاد نوعی نارضایتی عمومی در مصر شده که در نهایت منجر به انقلاب 2011 شد؛ انقلابی که رهبری آن در دست طبقه متوسط جدید بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of the New Middle Class in the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

نویسندگان [English]

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چکیده [English]

 
Political, economic and social reforms of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt, Anwar Sadat and Mubarak at the time of follow-up, especially in the field of health and development, public education, increasing young population and growing middle class and university educated people in the country. Therefore this study sought to answer the question of what role the new middle class in Egyptian 2011's revolution? Assuming of this research that the new middle class roles had the director, conductor and ideologist in the Egypt's 2011 revolution. This class is the most sought political participation, in front of Egypt's political structure capable of responding to this request was closed, turned into a revolutionary force and eventually lead to the fall of the Mubarak regime was in collaboration with the rocks. In addition, the economic situation is not so favorable in Egypt during the revolution, a high unemployment rate among the new middle class in such a way that about one million people is half the population belongs to the age group 20-24 years were unemployed Egypt, The increasing corruption of the ruling class, the creation of the "population bulge", large numbers of the population below the poverty line, rising global food prices and dependence on food imports, Egypt and poor human development in the country, a total of causing a public outcry in Egypt which ultimately led to the 2011 revolution was a revolution led by the new middle class.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Revolution
  • Egypt
  • New Middle Class
  • Huntington

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