گسل های هویتی و اقتصاد سیاسی گروه داعش

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد روابط بین الملل دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

حضور تعیین کننده گروه تروریستی داعش در بخش وسیعی از مناطق مرکزی و غرب عراق و مناطق شرقی سوریه کاملاً محرز می باشد. این گروه حوزه جغرافیایی وسیعی را به زیر کنترل خود در آورده که تقریباً وسعتی به اندازه خاک بریتانیا را در بر می گیرد. اینکه این مجموعه تروریستی برای مدت قابل توجهی است که توانایی بقا را متجلی ساخته محققاً توجه برانگیز جلوه می کند. پرواضح می باشد که مجموعه متنوعی از عوامل و مولفه های داخلی، منطقه ای و بین المللی باید در کنار یکدیگر قرار گیرند تا چنین وضعیتی را ممکن سازند. سوال اصلی این مقاله متوجه این نکته می باشد که در چارچوب تاکید بر کدامین مولفه های داخلی رشد و صعود گروه داعش چگونه باید ترسیم گردد. در مقام پاسخگویی به این سوال ضروری است که از یک سو نگاه معطوف به وجود گسل های تاریخی هویتی که ریشه در تمایزات قومی، مذهبی و قبیله ای دارد و از سویی دیگر ارزیابی متوجه دسترسی گروه داعش به منابع نفتی در مناطق تحت کنترل و قاچاق محموله های نفتی وگرفتن باج از راه گروگانگیری گردد. 

تازه های تحقیق

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کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identity Gaps and Political Economy of ISIS

نویسنده [English]

  • . .
چکیده [English]

As of early 2017, ISIL controlled approximately 45,377 square kilometers of territory in Iraq and Syria and 7,323 square kilometers of territory elsewhere, for a total of 52,700 square kilometers. This represents a substantial decline from the group's territorial peak in late 2014, when it controlled over 100,000 square kilometers of territory in total.  ISIS's territory has declined substantially in almost every country since 2014, a result of the group's unpopularity and the military action taken against it.  It threatened both Baghdad and Irbil in Iraq while consolidating control over more of eastern Syria and taking its fight toward Aleppo The root cause of this region-wide crisis is the failure of state authorities to be able to control their borders and their territories, to provide services to their populations and, ultimately, to forge a common political identity that could be the basis of political community. In the absence of central government control, local forces emerge, based on sectarian, ethnic, tribal and regional identities, to fill the gap. It has become largely self-funding, earning revenue from banditry, protection rackets, control of trade routes and taking over lucrative assets like oil refineries and gas stations. It recruits broadly, in the Middle East and North Africa and globally, its very success spurring jihadists and sympathizers to join it. It is extremely well organized and disciplined.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Identity Gaps
  • Political Economy
  • ISIS
  • Iraq

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