‏ تحول سیاست امنیتی ژاپن: از صلح جویی منفعلانه به کنشگری فعالانه ‏

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین الملل دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار مطالعات منطقه ای دانشگاه تهران

10.22124/wp.2018.3232

چکیده

پویایی و پیش‌بینی‌ناپذیری یکی از ویژگی‌های انکارناپذیر سیاست بین‌المللی است و همین مسئله در سیاست خارجی دولت‌ها نیز به‌وضوح قابل‌رؤیت است. در همین راستا شاید بتوان سیاست خارجی ژاپن را به‌عنوان یک نمونه از سیاست خارجی پویا و در حال تغییر مورداشاره قرارداد. شکست ژاپن در جنگ جهانی دوم منجر به تحولات عظیم درصحنه سیاست خارجی این کشور شد و وضعیت امنیتی آن را به‌طور کامل تغییر داد. به‌مرورزمان و به‌ویژه بعد از جنگ سرد ما شاهد آن هستیم که سیاست‌ امنیتی این کشور دچار فرازوفرودهای بسیاری شده و گاه رفتار متناقضی از خود نشان داده است؛ رفتاری که به تعبیر پیترکاتزنشین به «اسکیزوفرنی در سیاست خارجی» شباهت دارد. همین رفتار متناقض ژاپن باعث شده است که سیاست خارجی ژاپن به یک معما تبدیل‌شده و درک آن سخت شود. در این مقاله ابتدا تلاش می‌شود تا تغییرات طولانی‌مدت در سیاست خارجی ژاپن از دوره بعد جنگ جهانی دوم تا سال ۲۰۱8 میلادی بررسی‌ و به این سؤال پاسخ داده شود که هویت امنیتی ژاپن از سال 1945 تاکنون (2018) چه فرایندی را طی کرده است؟ در راستای پاسخ به این سؤال دوره‌های سیاست خارجی ژاپن به سه دوره زمانی ۱۹۴۵ تا ۱۹۹۰، ۱۹۹۰ تا ۲۰۰۱ و ۲۰۰۱ تا 2018 تقسیم‌شده و استدلال می‌شود که در طی دوره پس از جنگ جهانی دوم ژاپن از یک دولت صلح‌طلب منفعل به یک دولت صلح‌طلب فعال تبدیل‌شده است. روش پژوهش پیش رو توصیفی –تحلیلی بوده و با تکیه‌بر منابع کتابخانه‌ای انجام می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Evolution of Japan's Security Policy: From Pacifism to Proactive Pacifism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeynab Farhadi 1
  • Bahareh Sazmand 2
1 .
2 .
چکیده [English]

Dynamics and unpredictability are undeniable features of international politics, and this is clearly visible in the foreign policy of governments. In the same vein, Japan's foreign policy may seem like an example of a dynamic and changing foreign policy. Japan's defeat during the Second World War led to enormous changes in the country's foreign policy and its security status completely changed. In the meantime, and especially after the Cold War, one can see that the foreign policy of Japan has encountered many ups and downs and has sometimes shown contradictory behaviors; behaviors that, in Peter J. Katzenstein's interpretation is similar to " schizophrenia in foreign policy". Such Japan's contradictory behavior has made Japan's foreign policy a riddle and difficult to understand. This paper first attempts to investigate the long-term changes in Japan's foreign policy from the post-World War II to 2018. It then tries to find the answer to the question of what processes Japan's security identity has been going through? In response to this question, Japan's foreign policy eras are divided into three periods which include 1945-1990, 1990-2001, and 2001-2018, and it is argued that Japan has changed from a passive peaceful state to an active pacifist state. The research methodology followed is descriptive-analytic and is carried out through secondary research method

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Normalization
  • Active pacifism
  • The United States
  • North East Asia
  • Article 9.‎

محب علی، ق. ۱۳۸۸. تحول در استراتژی امنیت ملی ژاپن، فصلنامه سیاست خارجی، سال بیست‌وسه، شماره ۱، بهار. صص 201-222.

برگر، ت.1390. هنجارها، هویت و امنیت ملی در آلمان و ژاپن. در کاتزنشتین، پ.فرهنگ امنیت ملی؛ هنجارها و هویت در سیاست جهانی. ترجمه محمد هادی سمتی، جلد دوم، تهران: پژوهشکده مطالعات راهبردی.

Atanassova-Cornelis,Elena.2007.Conceptualising Security: Security Threats and Domestic Interests in Japanese Security Policy after 1989, The ECPR SGIR 6th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, Turin, 12-15 September 2007,Section 15, Panel 8.

Attwell, Robert.2016. “Situating Somali Piracy in Japanese Security Policy”, African East Asian Affairs - The China Monitor, 4:54-71, doi: 10.7552/0-4-182.

Basu1, Titli.2016. “Decoding Japan’s Security Discourse: Diverse Perspectives”, India Quarterly 72(1) 30–49.

Berger,Thomas(1996).Norms,Identity,andNationalSecurity in Germany and Japan, in Katzenstein, P. (1996). Cultural Norms and National Security: Police and Military in Postwar Japan. Ithaca; London: Cornell University Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.ctv5rdzdm

Ben-Ari, Eyal.2015. “Changing Japanese Defense Policies”, the Begin Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, Mideast Security and Policy Studies No. 112. Retrieved from: https://besacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/112_web1.pdf

Bendini, Roberto.2015. Japan Foreign and Security Policy at a Crossroads, European Union, Policy Department, Retrieved from: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2015/549065/EXPO_IDA (2015)549065_EN.pdf

Bruce Klingner.2016. Japanese Defense Reform Supports Allied Security Objectives, The Heritage Foundation, No. 3090, retrieved from: http://report.heritage.org/bg3090

Chun, Kwang Ho.2013. “Japan's security policy in relation to normal statehood”, Asia Eur J 11:415–431.

Cooper, Barry.2016. The Evolution of Japanese Security Policy, Canadian Global Affairs Institute, Retrieved from:https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/cdfai/pages/1400/attachments/original/1482203686/The_Evolution_of_Japanese_Security_Policy.pdf?1482203686

Fatton, Lionel Pierre. 2014. Japan’s New Defense Posture What are the implications of Japan’s constitutional reinterpretation on regional security dynamics? The Diplomat, Retrieved from: ttps://thediplomat.com/2014/07/japans-new-defense-posture/

Gray, Gavan P.2013.Japan's Defence Build-up and its Meaning for Asia, September 2013,European Institute for Asian Studies, Briefing Paper 2013/3.

 Katzenstein, Peter.2008. Rethinking Japanese Security: Internal and External Dimensions (Security and Governance), Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon, England.

Hirata, Keiko.2001. Cautious Proactivism and Reluctant Reactivism: Analyzing Japan's Foreign Policy toward Indochina, in Y. Sato and A. Miyashita (eds.), Japan’s Foreign Policy in Asia and the Pacific: Domestic Interests, American Pressure, and Regional Integration (pp. 75-101). New York: St. Martin’s Press, Retrieved from: http://www.csun.edu/~kh246690/indochina.pdf

Hughes, Christopher W. 2006. “Why Japan could revise its constitution and what it would mean for Japanese security policy.Orbis, Vol.50 (No.4). pp. 725-744.

Hagström, Linus.2015. “The ‘abnormal’ state: Identity, norm/exception and Japan”, European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 21(1) 122 –145.

Lind, Jennifer.2016. “Japan’s Security Evolution”, Policy Analysis No. 788.

Miyaoka, Isao.2011. “Japan’s Dual Security Identity: A Non-combat Military Role as an Enabler of Coexistence”, International Studies 48(3&4) 237–255.

Prosser, David L.2017.Analysis of key factors driving Japan’s military normalizati, Master’s thesis, Naval postgraduate school Monterey, California.

Pryor, crystal.2016. Japan's security policy under Abe: much ado about almost nothing? Pacific Forum CSIS, Number 33.

Robinson, David.2010. “Why the West should Discourage Japanese Military Expansion”, Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, Vol 1, No 2, 312-319

Sakaki, Alexandra.2015. Japan’s Security Policy: A Shift in Direction under Abe? SWP Research Paper.RP 2.

Saltzman, Ilai Z. 2014. Japan’s Pivot to Normalcy: Interpreting Tokyo’s Security Policy Revolution, Government Department, Claremont McKenna College, the FLACSO-ISA Joint International Conference, Buenos Aires, July 23-25.

Schnelle, Diana and Szczepanska, Kamila.2016. “Japan’s National Role Conception and itsPerceptions of China in the Region and World: The View of Prime Minister Abe Shinzō’s Administration”, ASIEN141, S. 32–51.

Singh, Bhubhindar.2002. “Japan's Post-Cold War Security Policy: Bringing Back the Normal State”, Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 82-105.

Söderberg, Marie.2005. Changes in Japan’s Foreign and Security Policy, European Institute of Japanese Studies, No 211, Retrieved from: https://swopec.hhs.se/eijswp/papers/eijswp0211.pdf

Tanaka, Kiwako (2015).Security Reforms and Development of Japan in 2014, NIDS Joint Research Series No.13.

Tanaka,Hitoshi.2007.Nationalistic Sentiments in Japan and their Foreign Policy Implications,Japan Center for International Exchange JCIE Vol. 2 No.1.

Tatsumi, Yuki. 2014. Can Japan’s National Security Strategy outlive Abe? East Asia Forum, Retrieved from: http://www.eastasiaforum.org /2014/11/18/can-japans-national-security-strategy-outlive-abe/

The Advisory Panel on Reconstruction of the Legal Basis for Security.May 15, 2014. Report of the Advisory Panel on Reconstruction of the Legal Basis for Security, Retrieved from: https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/ anzenhosyou2/ dai7/houkoku_en.pdf

Withitwinyuchon, Nutthathirataa.2016. “Japan’s New Defense Policy: Identity Change or Strategic Shift”, International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 6, No. 3.

Yuzawa, Takeshi. 2014.Japan’s new security strategy: changing national identity? East Asia Forum, Retrieved from: http://www.eastasiaforum.org /2014/03/20/japans-new-security-strategy-changing-national-identity/